At 4:30 a.m. April 12, 1861, on James Island in Charleston Harbor, Accomplice Lieutenant Henry Farley pulled the lanyard of a siege mortar. A strong thump rocked the bottom as an enormous 10-inch shell roared from the muzzle with a yellow-white flash. The heavy ball soared in an arc towards a darkish form looming a mile out within the calm waters of the harbor, a five-sided U.S. Military stronghold often called Fort Sumter. It burst with a searing pink flash over the fort’s ramparts, scattering fragments principally into the water but additionally onto Sumter’s parade grounds.
The Civil Warfare had begun.
Over the following day and a half, a glut of shell and shot struck the ability’s stout brick partitions and rained upon its bastions and dust inside. The Confederates would use 47 cannons, howitzers, and mortars throughout the relentless 34-hour siege, most positioned inside a sequence of forts and batteries that ringed the harbor.
However Sumter’s 85-man Federal garrison additionally needed to control a big, peculiar-looking contraption within the water itself—a tool that begged for a extra spectacular identify however as a substitute was identified by the Rebels reasonably informally because the “Floating Battery.”
Outfitted with 4 weapons, the battery had been constructed with grandiose expectations two months earlier. It could, nonetheless, turn into a shortly forgotten participant within the drama that started the Civil Warfare.
After seceding from the Union on December 20, 1860—the primary of 11 states to take action ultimately within the wake of Abraham Lincoln’s election—South Carolina had declared itself a republic. Anticipating a U.S. army response to the secession, state officers moved swiftly to determine an armed power that would defend the state’s pursuits. When South Carolina joined with six different states to type the Accomplice States of America on February 8, 1861, its state forces turned a part of the Accomplice Military.
Building of the Floating Battery started throughout the six-week interval that adopted South Carolina’s secession—accomplished on a broad slipway in Marsh’s Shipyard close to the Cooper River, in full view of Fort Sumter and its commander, Main Robert Anderson. Designed as a barge with a broad flat deck, the craft was 100 ft lengthy and 25 ft broad. Alongside one lengthy face, a heavy façade of strong straight pine timbers shaped a wall with a sloped glacis and angled roof. It appeared to Anderson, who watched by way of his subject glasses with curiosity and mounting trepidation, like “half of a coated bridge.” He additionally famous that black slaves endeavored alongside white employees in assembling the contraption.
What Anderson was watching was the creation of America’s first floating ironclad artillery battery—modeled after a vessel first produced in France in 1855 and used throughout the Crimean Warfare. Below the supervision of Captain James (some sources say John) Randolph Hamilton, who had resigned from the Union Navy to hitch South Carolina’s state forces, the craft was crafted to hold 4 heavy cannons onto the harbor’s waters, which could possibly be used to inflict injury to Sumter’s partitions or function a menace to enemy ships. Hamilton was accountable for the ambitiously named Navy of South Carolina.
The battery, which the Yankees typically known as “The Raft,” had multilayered sides of palmetto logs and pine timbers one foot sq., every bolted to the others to type a nearly impenetrable barricade of strong wooden. Anderson absolutely realized the 4 sq. openings he noticed had been gunports, and because the days handed, he watched an outer shell of six layers of heavy iron boilerplate being bolted onto the wooden, then strengthened with railroad iron. The iron encased the whole face, sides, and sloping roof of the casemate.
Below the 4 gunports, the façade angled backward, giving the phantasm of a ship’s hull. This might make a strong hit from a cannonball unlikely. To the rear, the deck timbers contained magazines for the powder. Above these had been a whole lot of sandbags, which did double obligation to defend the extremely explosive powder magazines and counterbalance the heavy casemate and cannon. Stable shot was saved in holds straight behind the weapons.
Initially Hamilton had hoped to mount boilers and a steam engine that might drive paddlewheels however relented when that proved impractical. The vessel can be towed by steam launches.
doomed to fail?
Anderson and his officers seen the creation with blended emotions. The consensus was that whereas the iron may defend it from Fort Sumter’s hearth, it could virtually actually capsize or break aside throughout a battle. Captain John Foster, Anderson’s engineering officer, stated with confidence: “I don’t assume this floating battery will show very formidable as it may be destroyed by our hearth earlier than it will probably do a lot injury.”
Anderson, whose expertise with artillery was top-drawer, was not as optimistic. He knew what a giant gun similar to a Dahlgren may do to a fort’s partitions, particularly when positioned—as this new menace undoubtedly can be—in shut proximity to Sumter. His best worry was that it could be aimed on the fort’s weak rear wall containing the wood gate and sally port.
Uncertain of what to do if the battery had been moved shut sufficient to be a severe menace, Anderson wrote the Warfare Division in Washington for orders: “What course wouldn’t it be correct to take, if with no declaration of warfare, I ought to see them approaching my fort with that battery? They might try putting it inside good way with no declaration of hostile intentions.”
Lame duck President James Buchanan prevaricated, nonetheless, issuing orders that had been each complicated and contradictory. At a February Cupboard assembly, he blared, “Crack away at them!” He shortly modified his thoughts, nonetheless, in favor of passing the buck, clearly desirous to keep away from any impulsive actions and subsequently dumping the scorching powder keg into the incoming president’s lap.
“In case you are satisfied by enough proof that the raft of which you communicate is advancing for the aim of creating an assault upon the fort, you then can be justified on the precept of self protection in not awaiting its precise arrival there, however in repelling power by power on its strategy,” Buchanan, based on historian Richard Snow’s 2016 ebook Iron Daybreak, equivocated. “If then again you will have purpose to imagine that it’s approaching merely to take up a place at a good way, ought to the pending query not be amicably settled, then, until your security is so clearly endangered as to render resistance an act of mandatory self-defense and safety, you’ll act with the forbearance that has distinguished you heretofore.”
Buchanan’s response left Anderson with much less confidence than earlier than. Ultimately, the key decided to attend to see what would occur.
On a day in late February, shortly after 8 a.m., greater than 5,000 Charlestonians had been readily available to witness the Floating Battery’s launch. The vessel slid down the shallow methods into the water with a surge of waves till it was introduced up quick by heavy ropes. To the amazement of some and the aid of others, the large craft did certainly float. It was then towed by steam launches to a cove at Sullivan’s Island close to Fort Moultrie and anchored a mile from Sumter’s northeast wall.
The battery’s armament, which was mounted after the launch, consisted of two 32-pounder and two 42-pounder naval smoothbores—primarily anti-ship weapons. Not like rifled weapons, they weren’t dependable sufficient for siege operations towards a stone-and-brick fort, missing the wanted penetration energy. Anderson was relieved to study that the Confederates had not mounted not less than one Dahlgren, as he had feared.
One other incongruity was the choice to connect a floating hospital to the battery’s stern, fitted with a number of beds and two working tables—to be towed alongside in case of want in battle.
vacationer sight, not terror
Though the vessel was a right away sensation within the metropolis, attracting crowds of residents and vacationers, these assigned to sail and struggle it had been lower than sanguine. The boys in Firm D of the South Carolina Artillery Battalion, often called the Richardson Guards, had been satisfied that it was a loss of life entice and can be sunk or shattered in battle. They derisively referred to as it the “slaughter pen.”
Opined a reporter for The New York Instances: “[I]f the tide ought to flip round, and current her unprotected facet to Main Anderson’s loss of life sellers at solely 600 yards, Captain Hamilton’s boys will discover a bloody grave.”
As Lincoln assumed the presidency on March 4, 1861, he realized that Anderson’s Fort Sumter garrison had solely sufficient meals to final till about April 15. In the meantime, Common P.G.T. Beauregard, commander of the Southern forces in Charleston, cabled the brand new Accomplice authorities in Montgomery, Ala., for directions. He was instructed in no unsure phrases to “challenge an order” for the Union forces to evacuate and give up the fort. However by the night of April 11, Anderson and his garrison continued to carry out.
That was the ultimate straw. All night time, Beauregard’s batteries and troops ready for the second of reality. An ultimatum had been delivered to Anderson that he give up and evacuate the fort. Anderson flatly refused. By 3 a.m. April 12, the die had been solid.
the First shot
Powder and shells, cartridges and balls, primers and lanyards had been readied. Then the fateful order got here from Beauregard to open hearth at 4:30 a.m. The 21-year-old Farley, famous for being the primary cadet to resign from the U.S. Navy Academy after his native South Carolina seceded, was given the dignity of firing the primary shot. That will be the sign for the opposite weapons across the harbor to start firing on Sumter.
Eager to preserve his ammunition, Beauregard had ordered that the batteries hearth in a predetermined sequence, going counterclockwise across the harbor, firing solely each two minutes. However quickly the gunners had been firing at will, maintaining a gentle cannonade.
Anderson stored his garrison in protected casemates till full daylight. Most accounts of the Federals’ response to the barrage report that the commander that morning ordered his weapons to open hearth on the enemy batteries that introduced the best menace, however selected to not use the cannons on the higher parapet since they had been uncovered to enemy hearth.
In actuality, the Federals fired solely six photographs all through the siege, based on Civil Warfare historian Craig Swain. What lastly pressured Anderson to conform to give up the citadel after 34 hours was the Accomplice use of “scorching shot,” which triggered fires within the fort—fires that threatened Anderson’s plentiful gunpowder provides. Regardless of the extent of Accomplice artillery hearth, images taken of the fort after the engagement present little injury to the facet going through Sullivan’s Island and the Floating Battery. The one important injury was to the opposite facet of the fort—the gorge wall—by the batteries at Cummings Level on Morris Island—and even that was not substantial.
By the point Anderson surrendered and lowered the scorched, torn U.S. flag, Beauregard’s gunners had loosed greater than 3,000 shells and shot on the fort. Hamilton and the Floating Battery remained engaged all through.
No official tally, nonetheless, was ever given for the variety of photographs it fired, with counts starting from as little as 100 to as many as 490.
the floating battery vindicated
The Charleston Mercury labeled the siege a “splendid pyrotechnics exhibition, [and] most of the weapons on the parapet had been dismounted and a part of the parapet swept away.” It additionally acknowledged proudly that the creators of the Floating Battery “have absolutely vindicated the correctness of their conception. Shot after shot fell upon them and glanced harmlessly away. [From] their favorable place their photographs fell with impact upon Fort Sumter.”
Whether or not the Floating Battery ever fired one other shot in anger after the siege of Fort Sumter is unsubstantiated. There may be proof it was positioned simply off Fort Johnson on James Island. Fort Johnson, the location the place Farley fired the primary shot in April 1861, was thought-about “Center Floor” within the harbor, and it’s possible, although unverified, that the Floating Battery fired on Federal ironclads on April 7, 1863. These meant targets had been properly out of vary, nonetheless.
The Confederates had been compelled to desert Fort Sumter in the summertime of 1863, the identical 12 months the Floating Battery was reportedly broken in a storm and its weapons and the iron sheathing had been eliminated. The construction quickly got here aside, and by 1865 solely a part of its casemate remained above the ever-shifting sandy waters off Sullivan’s Island.
Anderson was eerily prescient commenting on the battery to the U.S. Warfare Division after returning to Washington: “If somebody conceived the thought, and it wouldn’t take a lot creativeness on the a part of these new enemies, of mounting a steam engine contained in the battery, the outcomes could possibly be dire for the wood warships that make up the whole thing of the U.S. Navy.”
An avid scholar of Civil Warfare, naval, and army historical past, Mark Carlson additionally spent eight years as a reenactor. He’s a member of the Navy Writers Society of America, has contributed materials to greater than 20 nationwide magazines, and is the writer of The Marines’ Misplaced Squadron—The Odyssey of VMF-422. He lives in San Marcos, Calif.