On November 23, 1916, a pivotal fight spread out above the Somme between probably the most achieved fighter pilots in Britain’s Royal Flying Corps and a somewhat unknown German aviator. When it was once over, a younger Manfred von Richthofen had triumphed over Victoria Cross recipient Lanoe Hawker in a hard-fought contest that showed the technological superiority of German warring parties over their British combatants.
Six months previous, the RFC’s de Havilland D.H.2s were instrumental in wresting aerial supremacy from Germany’s Fokker E.III Eindeckers within the skies over northern France. As the bloodiest fight of World War I flooring on within the fall of 1916, on the other hand, the British airmen discovered themselves hard-pressed to deal with their merit. From June 1 via November 18, 1916, the RFC misplaced 499 airmen killed, wounded or lacking in motion, and greater than 972 plane have been destroyed in fight or injuries. Many of the ones plane, such because the notorious Blériot Experimental sequence (maximum significantly the B.E.2c), have been old-fashioned, however Maj. Gen. Hugh Trenchard was once made up our minds to place each and every to be had aircraft into the combat. RFC leaders quickly got here to comprehend that except British airplanes as technically complicated as the most recent German Albatros D.I and D.II warring parties have been made to be had temporarily, they might most probably lose keep watch over of the skies above the Somme and Flanders fronts.
Major Lanoe George Hawker, commander of the RFC’s first single-seat fighter squadron, was once considered one of Trenchard’s champions. Hawker had begun his RFC flying occupation with No. 6 Squadron on October 3, 1914. He hardly ever had an opportunity to fulfill his new squadron pals ahead of they flew their 8 B.E.s and 4 Farmans to Belgium on October 7. Hawker began wearing a revolver with him on reconnaissance missions, and reported on October 31, “I met a German biplane the day past afternoon and fired six photographs at him with my revolver—no just right, after all, however he took fright and made for house.”
That wintry weather of 1914-15 introduced few alternatives for aerial fight. Hawker and No. 6 Squadron spent the wintry weather months honing their talents whilst accomplishing reconnaissance and photographic missions, in addition to directing artillery hearth. When No. 6 Squadron was once tasked with bombing Zeppelin sheds at Gontrode on April 18, Hawker was once picked for the project. Although he didn’t achieve destroying the sheds, he dropped 3 bombs (one at not up to 200 ft) and attacked an statement balloon with hand grenades, then controlled to make it again to base at Poperinghe in a broken aircraft. Awarded the Distinguished Service Order, Hawker was once due to this fact promoted to command of A Flight.
Per week later, all the way through the Second Battle of Ypres, Hawker was once wounded within the foot through groundfire all the way through a recon sortie. For the rest of that fight he needed to be carried to and from his aircraft, however he refused to be grounded till the combat was once over.
Following scientific depart to England, in past due May Hawker returned to No. 6 Squadron, the place he was once delighted to obtain some of the RFC’s latest plane, the Bristol Scout Type C. A tractor biplane with a best velocity of 92 mph and a fifteen,500-foot ceiling, it was once compact and extra maneuverable than some other British plane then in carrier.
Working together with his mechanic, Hawker devised a mounting for the Lewis mechanical device gun on his new aircraft. Since the British had no longer but advanced a method of firing a mechanical device gun throughout the propeller with out harmful it, Hawker hooked up his weapon to the aspect of the fuselage so it might hearth at an perspective, fending off the prop arc.
After a number of inconclusive engagements, at the night time of July 25, 1915, Captain Hawker noticed two German airplanes over Passchendaele. He attacked the closest of the 2. Flying together with his proper hand whilst firing the Lewis gun together with his left, Hawker emptied a complete drum of 47 rounds on the enemy aircraft, then pursued the second one plane. Both planes retreated into German airspace. One of them, broken through Hawker’s hearth, was once noticed through a British anti-aircraft battery creating a hasty touchdown simply throughout the German strains.
Thirty mins later Hawker noticed every other enemy 10,000 ft above Hooge and stalked his quarry till he was once not up to 100 yards away ahead of firing. This time the German aircraft stuck hearth and crashed. As historian Alex Revell famous, that fight was once “probably the most a success but fought through a single-seater scout of the RFC.” Hawker was once due to this fact awarded the Victoria Cross, the primary for single-seat air-to-air fight. Alternately flying his Bristol Scout and a Farman Experimental F.E.2b two-seat pusher, he would formally be credited with downing seven German planes in rather less than 3 months, changing into the RFC’s first ace.
After greater than a yr in fight, Hawker was once appearing indicators of critical pressure. Sent again to Britain in September 1915, he was once selected to guide the RFC’s newly shaped single-seat fighter unit. Promoted to main, Hawker took command of No. 24 Squadron at Hounslow on September 28. The squadron gained its first plane, the D.H.2, in January 1916.
A single-seat pusher biplane powered through a 100-hp Le Rhône or Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine, the D.H.2 had a most velocity of 93 mph and a ceiling of 14,000 ft. Besides its somewhat gradual velocity, it had a slower fee of climb than Germany’s number one fighter, the E.III Eindecker. Its single-valve (monosoupape) engine was once supplied with a hand-controlled gas induction gadget that most effective allowed the engine to run at complete velocity or on no account. In a dive, the pilot incessantly needed to flip off the engine to keep away from flooding it.
The D.H.2 pilot sat in a bathtub-shaped nacelle with the engine and propeller at his again. A unmarried .303-inch Lewis mechanical device gun rested at the cockpit’s ahead rim. The pilot needed to fly with one hand at the keep watch over stick or use his knees, converting the ammunition drum and firing with the opposite hand—a hard manuever all the way through aerial fight, to mention the least.
Hawker and No. 24 Squadron flew to St. Omer, France, on February 8, 1916. Trenchard issued a right away order to his skilled squadron commanders: Rather than take part in missions, their process at this level was once to coach their aircrews methods to combat and continue to exist over the Western Front. Many commanders violated that order, on the other hand, Hawker amongst them. He incessantly argued that he had to fly to check new theories or enhancements he had made to plane or apparatus.
For instance, Hawker advanced a hoop gunsight and in addition created a clamp and spring clip software to carry the Lewis gun in position at the D.H.2. Given the plane’s open cockpit and rear-mounted engine, D.H.2 pilots risked frostbite each and every time they flew at top altitudes. Hawker addressed that drawback through designing fur-lined boots that reached to the higher thigh, referred to as “fug-boots,” which changed into same old factor. Envious German pilots incessantly confiscated them from captured British fliers who’d been shot down.
As commander of the RFC’s first fighter squadron, Hawker’s biggest problem was once to expand ways and enforce a coaching program for his personal pilots in addition to the opposite 5 fighter squadrons then forming in England. During the primary week, two of his pilots put their D.H.2s into spins, with deadly effects. One of the planes stuck hearth at the approach down, reinforcing the view that the D.H.2 was once a “spinning incinerator.” Realizing his males’s morale was once shaken, Hawker climbed into his personal aircraft and took off. Over a duration of half-hour he put the D.H.2 into spins from quite a lot of angles and turns with the engine on in addition to off, ably demonstrating methods to regain keep watch over. After touchdown, he accumulated his males in combination and advised them: “It’s alright, you fellows. You can get the D.H.2 out of any spin. I’ve simply attempted it out.” He then went on to give an explanation for his tactics, rebuilding the lads’s self assurance of their mounts. There have been not more fatalities from spins in No. 24 Squadron after that demonstration.
Following weeks of intense coaching, No. 24 carried out its first operational fight sortie on March 24, 1916. The squadron celebrated its first legitimate victory on April 2, when second Lt. David M. Tidmarsh shot down an Albatros two-seater.
During the spring and summer time of 1916, Hawker’s D.H.2s performed a big position in finishing the “Fokker Scourge.” On June 22, days ahead of the beginning of the Somme marketing campaign, Hawker issued a easy order to his pilots: “Attack the whole lot.” That transient directive summarized the commander’s imaginative and prescient, tenacity and aggression towards the enemy—qualities he attempted to instill in all his males. During the five-month Battle of the Somme, No. 24 Squadron equipped exceptional give a boost to to General Sir Edmund Allenby’s Third Army. Heeding Trenchard’s name for incessant offensive operations to disclaim the Germans keep watch over of the air, No. 24 accounted for an excellent overall of 70 enemy plane, at a price of 12 of its personal planes and 21 pilots killed, wounded or lacking.
But through September 1916, when the Albatros D.I and D.II have been offered to the entrance, the pendulum started to swing again within the Germans’ want. In addition to throwing quicker and better-armed plane into the combat, the Germans have been made up our minds to finish Britain’s air supremacy over the entrance strains by way of 4 main projects.
The first main exchange happened in past due August, when the German air carrier established a flying team chief inside of every corps headquarters. Having one guy reasonably than a gaggle of people at quite a lot of ranges coordinate the tactical use of plane gadgets supporting military corps helped synchronize the air arm with flooring forces.
The 2nd initiative concerned the established order of the primary Jagdstaffeln (looking squadrons), or Jastas, to hunt out and break Allied plane, so different German planes may accomplish their assigned missions. Renowned fighter tactician Oswald Boelcke was once named commander of Jasta 2 and given loose rein to handpick his pilots from during the air carrier.
The plan’s 3rd element entailed arming those newly created looking squadrons with the most recent era of German fighter planes, in particular the Albatros D.I and Fokker D.I. Both of the ones plane had distinct benefits over the D.H.2.
The fourth exchange got here on October 8, when Kaiser Wilhelm II created the placement of commanding basic of the air forces, and renamed the German air carrier the Luftstreitskräfte (air drive). General Ernst von Hoeppner, the primary commanding basic, and his personnel would do a lot to advance the idea that of air energy, no longer just for Germany, however for the Central Powers as a complete.
Boelcke decided on the most efficient and brightest pilots for his new Jasta. Among them was once a tender Silesian aristocrat, second Lt. Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen, who had transferred from the cavalry to the air carrier in May 1915. Of his first flight, Richthofen stated, “I didn’t care a little bit the place I used to be and I felt extraordinarily unhappy when my pilot idea it was once time to move down once more.” In September he skilled his first air fight, exchanging rifle photographs with the staff of an RFC Farman. Later that month he claimed to have shot down a French Farman in the back of Allied strains, however it will no longer be showed.
During a teach journey Richthofen encountered the well-known ace Boelcke and requested about his methodology. “It’s moderately easy,” Boelcke advised him. “I fly just about my guy, take just right intention, shoot after which, after all, he falls down.” When Richthofen stated he attempted to do the similar factor however with very little luck to turn for it, Boelcke defined that the large distinction was once that he flew a Fokker fighter. From that point on, Richthofen vowed to turn into a fighter pilot.
After some rudimentary instruction he soloed, however crashed on touchdown. He was once despatched to Döberitz for added coaching, and on Christmas Day gained notification that he had handed his examinations and was once a licensed pilot. In March 1916, Richthofen was once assigned to a two-seater squadron close to Verdun, and on April 26 he shot down a Nieuport. Once once more he didn’t obtain legitimate credit score, however French data point out he wounded long term ace Jean Casale. When Boelcke contacted Richthofen a couple of months later, the 23-year-old Prussian eagerly authorised his invitation to enroll in Jasta 2 at the Somme entrance.
Boelcke spent the primary 3 weeks of September educating formation flying, gunnery and ways. His unit had simply gained the brand new Albatros D.I fighter, which had a most velocity of 109 mph and a 17,000-foot ceiling. Faster than the D.H.2, it wasn’t as maneuverable, nevertheless it was once armed with two 7.92mm Maxim mechanical device weapons fed through 500-round belts of ammunition.
September 17 would end up to be a turning level within the air struggle over the Western Front. Spotting British plane crossing into German-held territory that day, Jasta 2 started stalking them till the time was once proper to assault. Eight lumbering B.E.2cs of No. 12 Squadron, weighed down through 112-pound bombs and escorted through six F.E.2bs of No. 11 Squadron, have been attacking Marcoing railway station when Boelcke’s males descended out of the solar. In fast succession they shot down 4 F.E.2bs and two B.E.2cs, without a losses to Jasta 2. The victories incorporated Boelcke’s twenty seventh and Richthofen’s first.
On October 28, Jasta 2 fliers encountered two D.H.2s from Hawker’s No. 24 Squadron—one of the engagements between the rival squadrons. While making an attempt to near on a D.H.2 flown through Captain Gerald A. Knight, Boelcke collided with considered one of his personal males and was once killed when his Albatros broke up within the air. The commander’s dying was once a blow to his unit in addition to the German air drive. But Boelcke had educated a complete squadron of professional fighter pilots, and virtually all his males would upward push to command Jagdstaffeln of their very own. In his honor, Jasta 2 was once renamed Jasta Boelcke.
In the process the following 4 weeks, supplied with the enhanced Albatros D.II and commanded through 1st Lt. Stefan Kirmaier, the squadron downed a complete of 25 British plane. On November 22, Kirmaier himself was once shot down and killed through Captain John “Jock” Andrews, considered one of Hawker’s maximum succesful veterans in No. 24 Squadron.
The subsequent day 4 D.H.2s of Andrews’ A Flight took off at 1300 from No. 24 Squadron’s airfield at Bertangles, close to Amiens, to hyperlink up with two photoreconnaissance plane. A noon rain had simply stopped falling and C Flight had lately returned from its morning patrol after escorting two recon plane to German-held Bapaume, north east of Bertangles. The pilots reported having noticed a big formation of enemy warring parties that gave the look to be looking ahead to one thing.
Major Hawker surmised that the Germans have been mendacity in watch for the following flight of RFC recon plane. Despite the order forbidding commanding officials from flying over enemy strains, he determined to accompany A Flight as its fourth member. Led through Andrews, the flight additionally incorporated Lieutenants John H. Crutch and Robert H.M.S. Saundby (who would turn into an air marshal all the way through World War II).
At 1310 Crutch’s aircraft advanced engine hassle, and he signaled to Andrews that he was once returning to base. A Flight crossed the strains at 11,000 ft at 1330. All 3 pilots spotted a fight in growth over Grandcourt between a number of British Nieuport warring parties and a German flight. When Andrews became to help the Nieuports, the Germans noticed the D.H.2s and broke away, heading east. Andrews put his flight again not off course for Bapaume.
Twenty mins later Andrews noticed two German statement planes northeast of Bapaume and gave the sign to assault. The D.H.2s started a shallow dive to bring to an end the enemy planes’ expected retreat, however the Germans temporarily became to keep away from fight. At that time Andrews made a cursory sweep of the sky and spotted a lot of black dots some distance above them. He then learned the recon plane were bait for a lure. What gave the look of a complete enemy squadron was once descending at the 3 D.H.2s. Andrews temporarily determined his most effective plan of action was once to guide his flight house as speedy as imaginable.
Andrews and Saundby made a large proper flip, however Hawker— both as a result of he idea Andrews was once turning again because of engine hassle or as a result of he was once intent on pursuing the backing out enemy— persisted to fly east. Realizing that the German flight was once bearing down on his squadron commander, Andrews persisted the circle, with Saundby nonetheless off his proper wing, then went after Hawker, hoping to go off the Germans. Andrews fired 25 rounds at some of the German planes when it was once not up to 100 ft above and in the back of Hawker. The enemy fighter fell right into a steep dive—however extra necessary, Hawker know knew he was once the objective for 10 Germans.
Andrews got here below assault inside of seconds, a number of bullets tearing into the engine and gasoline tank of his D.H.2. His engine stopped, however he controlled to show west, hanging his aircraft right into a steep dive in an try to go with the flow again to British strains. Taking one remaining glance in the back of him, he noticed Hawker flying in circles with a lone German fighter at about 3,000 ft.
One of the Germans pursued Andrews, however Saundby were given in the back of the unsuspecting enemy and emptied maximum of a 47-round drum into his aircraft, which went down in a spin. Then Saundby waved to his flight chief and headed again searching for the opposite enemy warring parties.
Two miles throughout the German strains, Hawker was once engaged in a perilous ballet with a lone D.II piloted through Richthofen, who were victorious in 10 aerial battles within the previous 8 weeks. As the 2 antagonists turned around, every striving to get at the different’s tail, the German ace temporarily learned that he was once up towards an excessively skilled pilot. Nevertheless, he idea if he was once affected person the Englishman would run low on gas and must make a smash for his strains.
Popular myths have the 2 warring parties circling for part an hour, however that impossibly grueling period of time is the manufactured from misinterpreted fight experiences and distorted recollections. Five mins is a extra believable period of time for the tight-turning dogfight. As it was once, the circling warring parties steadily descended from 5,000 ft to not up to 300 ft. At that time Hawker was once operating out of each gas and sky, so he made a touch for the British strains.
Richthofen snapped his Albatros into a decent financial institution and went directly for the Englishman’s tail. Both males have been flying not up to 150 ft over the pockmarked battlefield simply west of Bapaume. Hawker zigzagged, hoping to give a tougher goal but in addition shedding valuable velocity. A circulation of mechanical device gun hearth tore previous his left wing, then previous his proper.
Less than 1 / 4 mile from the British strains, after the use of up just about 900 of his 1,000 rounds of ammunition—and in addition having to transparent two jammed weapons within the procedure— Richthofen drew to inside of 60 ft of the D.H.2, squeezed the cause and watched as his rounds struck the British plane’s tail, engine and cockpit. The D.H.2 straightened for a second ahead of nosing downward, crashing right into a water-filled shell hollow not up to 200 ft from the British strains. Lanoe Hawker was once lifeless, with a unmarried bullet behind his head. Richthofen wrote after the fight:
My Englishman was once a just right sportsman, however through and through the item changed into somewhat too scorching for him. He needed to make a decision whether or not he would land on German flooring or whether or not he would fly again to the English strains. Of route, he attempted the latter, after endeavoring in useless to flee me through loopings and such methods. At that point my first bullets have been flying round him, for thus far neither folks were ready to do any capturing. When he had come right down to about 300 ft he attempted to flee through flying in a zigzag route, which makes it tricky for an observer at the flooring to shoot. That was once my maximum favorable second. I adopted him at an altitude of from 250 to 150 ft firing at all times. The Englishman may no longer assist falling. But the jamming of my weapons just about robbed me of my luck.
The Germans buried Major Hawker subsequent to the stays of his plane. His grave was once misplaced all the way through the next two years of battle. Hawker’s title is honored at Arras at the Air Services Memorial to the Missing.
It was once Richthofen’s eleventh victory. After 5 extra he would obtain his country’s absolute best award for valor, the Ordre Pour le Mérite, nicknamed the “Blue Max” through the British in tribute to Max Immelmann, an early German ace and rival of Boelcke’s. Richthofen took nice delight in capturing down some of the RFC’s easiest pilots, writing: “My 11th Englishman was once a Major Hawker, twenty-six years previous and commander of an English squadron. According to prisoners’ accounts, he was once the English Boelcke. He gave me the toughest combat I’ve skilled thus far, till I in the end succeeded in getting him down.”
Within 24 hours each the RFC and the Luftstreitskräfte knew that Hawker were killed through an airman with not up to 8 weeks’ revel in as a fighter pilot. For the Germans, it looked like the hand of destiny was once concerned. On June 18, two weeks ahead of the beginning of the Somme offensive, they’d misplaced their premier fighter pilot, Immelmann, apparently signifying that the RFC had received air supremacy. Then on October 28 Boelcke were killed, and his successor, Kirmaier, not up to a month later. Now Hawker’s dying was once taken as evidence the pendulum had swung again of their want. Probably of better importance, on the other hand, was once that the D.H.2, which had eclipsed the Fokker Eindecker, were surpassed through the Albatros.
The worst was once but to return for the RFC. Six months after Hawker’s dying, all the way through “Bloody April,” 151 British plane have been shot down, with 316 airmen killed or lacking—the absolute best RFC casualty fee for any unmarried month of World War I. Richthofen, who accomplished aviation immortality because the “Red Baron,” fought on for every other 17 months ahead of being shot down on April 21, 1918. Exactly who was once accountable for his dying has lengthy been debated, however lately many of the proof issues to an Australian machine-gunner reasonably than RAF Captain Roy Brown, who was once pursuing Richthofen to save lots of considered one of his personal fledgling pilots from the baron’s weapons. Richthofen’s 80 aerial victories made him the highest-scoring fighter pilot of the struggle.
Countless books, articles and flicks had been according to the Red Baron’s spectacular occupation, however maximum of them omit his duel with Hawker. Their fight was once simply one of the struggles within the hotly contested skies over the Western Front in 1916. But within the annals of World War I aviation, their transient come across stays the stuff of legend.
Retired U.S. Army Lt. Col. Thomas G. Bradbeer has been researching the air struggle of 1914-18 for 35 years. He recommends for additional studying: The Royal Flying Corps in World War I, through Ralph Barker; and The Red Baron: Beyond the Legend, through Peter Kilduff.
Originally revealed within the January 2009 factor of Aviation History. Subscribe lately!